The Mercury News, San Jose, CA, Nov 17, 2017, By Khalida Sarwari
Euphrat Museum of Art’s fall exhibit, titled “Kindness as Resistance,” features artwork by Bay Area-based artists that explore positive counter-narratives as a response to injustice or oppression.
Pantea Karimi, a San Jose-based artist who teaches at Gavilan College and Cabrillo College, has several pieces in the exhibit, many of which were inspired by her childhood in Shiraz, Iran. Her works collectively attempt to engage four of the five senses: touch, sight, hearing and smell. Her most visible piece is called “Folding Gardens,” an installation of digital prints on silk organza, rods and threads that hang from the ceiling. The work is based on “The Herbal of al‑Ghafiqi,” a manuscript written by 12th century Andalusian physician and scholar Abu Ja’far al-Ghafiqi. “The idea is that someone can take these fabric strips in a folded manner and open them on demand,” Karimi said. “To me, it’s very poetic. It’s a metaphor for carrying the healing notion of nature. That’s why they’re printed on fabric so they can be folded.”
In this space, Karimi has the sound of a water fountain emanating from speakers. Alongside “Folding Gardens” is another piece that’s titled “Medicinal Herbal Volvelle,” an interactive wheel installation that reveals the healing properties of eight plants. And right next to that is a shelf that contains plant extracts—another interactive piece that invites visitors to open the bottles and take a whiff, a Shiraz-inspired piece of art, Karimi said.
Karimi developed these works this year as part of a six-month fellowship residency she completed at the Kala Art Institute in Berkeley. Her aim, she said, was to encourage people to engage with these concepts through the senses rather than just read about them online or in a book. “My main idea is basically that I would like to encourage people to get connected to the natural world,” she said. “The importance of connectivity with the natural world is the main idea behind this botanical work and also to highlight the ancient practices. I feel like in contemporary times, we are not connected to the healing aspect of nature. We are connected to the beauty of it and preserving it, but how about the healing aspect of it? So I wanted to highlight that through my work.”
Stateless, group exhibition, University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth
SouthCost Today, New Bedford, MA, Dec 15, 2016, by Don Wilkinson, an art writer and critic living in New Bedford
These are tumultuous times and there is an endless barrage of disturbing images that remind us how much misery and pain is in the world. One such haunting image surfaced in late 2015, when the world became aware of the photograph of a three year old Syrian boy Alan Kurdi. He wore a bright red T-shirt and he was face-down on the beach, like a discarded toy. He drowned in the Mediterranean Sea as his family fled crisis in the Middle East. That toddler could have been anyone’s son. But instead he became a symbol of something gone very wrong.
In an alcove, Pantea Karimi (sister of the curator) displays “Waters of Life, Waters of Death” in which a video projection of lapping waves on a tranquil beach is projected over black silhouettes derived from ancient maps of the Persian Gulf, the Caspian Sea and elsewhere. The sound that accompanies the video is soothing. But it would be a tragic mistake to get lulled.
SF WEEKLY, San Francisco, CA, April 20, 2016, By Jonathan Curiel
In Pantea Karimi’s new watercolor and silkscreen work called The Return of Geocentrism i, centuries of knowledge — and layers of meaning — flood across a celestial horizon that has the sun revolving around the earth. The art is Karimi’s take on a 16th-century cartographic work by Portugal’s Bartolomeu Velho, who was envisioning a second-century idea by the Greek-Egyptian scholar Ptolemy. In Velho’s time, during the European Renaissance, knowledge was transferred through books translated over the centuries by Arab and Persian scholars who’d kept alive Greek theories that would otherwise have been lost. No Arab and Persian scientists. No European Renaissance. Karimi is honoring this cross-century transference, where Velho was collaborating with Ptolemy through ancient scholars from the Middle East. But Karimi’s work, which is part of her art series called “Punctum Caecum” — Latin for “blind spot” — is also a sly commentary on today’s environmental concerns.”I use the title ironically,” says Karimi, who was born and raised in Iran and now lives in San Jose. “Because of all the problems that we have on Earth — climate-wise and scientifically — the return of geocentrism is a kind of metaphor. Do we have to pay attention to Earth again? Isn’t it Earth at the center of attention?” Karimi will exhibit The Return of Geocentrism i and other work from her “Punctum Caecum” series at stARTup Art Fair San Francisco, which runs April 29 through May 1 in the Marina District and features many artists who don’t have traditional gallery representation.
Creative Conversation with Pantea Karimi
stARTup Art Fair artist/exhibitor Pantea Karimi will join fair co-founders Ray Beldner and Steve Zavattero for a dialogue about Karimi’s work, the state of the contemporary art world, art fairs, and how technology tools affect the creative process.
The Lux of A Dark Age
Artist Pantea Karimi Discusses Her Punctum Caecum Series
Interview with Art Historian Dr. Staci Gem Scheiwiller, 32-page published catalog
California State University, Stanislaus, Turlock, CA
Click on the image for the pdf catalog
Pantea Karimi: I have had a long-term interest in juxtaposed textual and pictorial elements. I am intrigued by the ways in which image and text interact and convey meaning. Following this interest, my current body of work explores the history of archaic technologies and investigates how older scientific knowledge was communicated through both image and text. I examine medieval and early modern scientific manuscripts–Persian, Arab and European–and the longue durée (long term) exchange of knowledge across these cultures. This process not only provides me with a great means to explore what I love–the relationship between image and text–but also expands my appreciation of science and its role in the visualization of abstract concepts. The scientific manuscripts are dynamic and engaging. Most of them are filled with beautiful drawings and calligraphic texts. Others include interactive devices, such as volvelles (paper wheel charts) that accommodated calculation in many diverse subjects and used beautiful images, calligraphic texts and numbers.
I am a printmaker and painter and I also hold a professional degree with work experience in graphic design, all of which have influenced my fine art aesthetic and practice. For the past few years, I have been using mixed-media techniques in my works, mainly a mix of silkscreen and monotype printing with watercolor and graphite on various substrates. Additionally as a graphic designer, I have always been intrigued by the design and layout of books and print media; my graphic design capstone project in 1999 was an exploration into the design and layout of nineteenth-century Iranian newspapers.
Which artists and art movements have been important inspirations in your own artistic development? How have you developed your own creative voice?
PK: While medieval and early modern scientific manuscripts are my main sources of inspiration, I am also influenced by the work of modern avant-garde artists. In terms of abstraction and arrangement of my own forms, I draw inspiration from the Russian Suprematist artists El Lissitzky (1890-1941) and Kazimir Malevich (1878-1935). These artists were in search of a style of abstract painting based on geometric shapes, which they believed promoted the supremacy of pure artistic feeling over the depiction of objects. Being influenced by Suprematists, I began the Punctum Caecum series by selecting medieval and early modern Persian, Arab and European scientists who were inspired or influenced by each other’s scholarly works or theories. I then rendered the pages of texts and diagrams of the manuscripts by these scientists into black shapes. These black shapes provide me with a new visual form of engagement with scientific content and offer more compositional opportunities in my works. Like Suprematists’ works, these black shapes aim to engage the “pure feelings” of my audiences through simplicity and absence of didactic information. I want to explore the ways in which viewers respond to form both visually and conceptually.
I believe that creativity is innate, and it must emerge naturally. Similar to the Suprematists, I want to instill a “pure” process of thinking into my audiences. In this particular project, I have developed and enriched my creative voice through observation and exploration of form and scientific content and the ways I interpret these pieces of information in my work.
How is Punctum Caecum different from your earlier projects?
PK: My series Punctum Caecum, which means “blind spot” in Latin, is the result of my exploration of ancient Arab, Persian and European scientific manuscripts. “Blind spot” stands for both the Dark Ages and for when we turn a blind eye to the fluidity of exchange of knowledge between these various scientists. The scientific books from the medieval Islamicate world and early modern times offer nuanced understandings of the relationship between form and text, and above all, between scientific concepts and their myriad manifestations in visual forms. Medieval and early modern scientific manuscripts were composed of hand-drawn images and diagrams, as well as textual and mathematical explanations. Each page of these manuscripts often separated images and texts through both structural compositions and random layouts as they appear to our eyes. To reiterate, sometimes commentators penned their thoughts as marginalia, thereby initiating a dialogue with the reader. All the above attributions make this project not only different from my previous ones but also very special and fascinating for me to work with. Moreover by revisiting the scientific concepts through the lens of art, I highlight the significance of visual elements in science. In fact, I see similarities between scientific and artistic discovery processes; both fields share exploration–visually and conceptually–use imagination and communicate meaning. This new project and research have elevated my inner awareness about the ways in which we communicate as humans and the many forms that this communication takes.
What were some of the driving forces behind Punctum Caecum?
PK: I came across an article in The Guardian about a new book, Mathematics and Art: A Cultural History by historian Lynn Gamwell. In the article, I encountered a quotation by Gamwell that deeply resonated with me:
To research Math and Art I had to learn maths concepts like calculus, group theory and predicate logic. As a novice struggling to understand these ideas, I was struck with the poor quality and confusing content of illustrations in most educational books. So I vowed to create for my book a set of cogent math diagrams that are crystal-clear visualizations of the abstract concepts. As a lecturer at the School of Visual Arts in Manhattan, I wrote this book for my students, such as Maria, who told me she was never good at history because she couldn’t remember dates, and for Jin Sug, who failed high school algebra because he couldn’t memorize formulae. I hope they will read this book and discover that history is a storybook and that math is about captivating idea.
In Iran, high school students are required to choose a major and stay with it for the entire duration of their education. By the age of 15, I had invested most of my free time in fine arts studio practice and had received music lessons on a regular basis. Despite all this, my parents wanted me to enter my high school’s natural sciences department, which prepared students for medical school. My parents were great advocates of art; however as pragmatists in a society that mainly praises doctors and engineers, they encouraged me to become a pharmacist. But their wish never came true. As years went by, I faced many difficulties and ended up switching fields of study on entering college. This was mainly due to the fact that the scientific concepts were not explained extensively or in a hands-on way, and rote learning was the main focus at the time. My biology and chemistry textbooks included images (albeit in poor black-and-white quality), and in hindsight, I recognize how those difficult and abstract scientific subjects spoke to me more vividly through images and diagrams. This relationship between visual representations and abstract ideas has continued to captivate me and has become the basis for my current research and work. As an artist, I am naturally driven by my deep feelings and childhood experiences that have shaped my perceptions of the world. So, my unsuccessful encounters with scientific subjects have always endured, and I am still in search of a way to overcome this shortcoming. Consequently, Punctum Caecum is somehow a personal journey.
Your Volvelles are fascinating, which remind one of astrolabes. Astrolabes metaphorically inscribe the world, making the globe a particular text itself. Are you drawing attention to similar constructions of historical knowledge and intentional mapping of the world, perhaps as they pertain to contemporary issues?
PK: While similar at first glance, volvelles provide more formal possibilities for me than astrolabes. Exploring the form and function of volvelle allows me to imagine myself in medieval times. Made out of paper, volvelles are versatile in forms and layering construction. But there is more to them than just this. Getty curator Rheagan Martin describes volvelles in these terms:
As scientific thought progressed, volvelles became increasingly valued not just for their ability to record information, but also for their potential to produce new knowledge. Revolutionary for its time, the parchment calculating device was considered a form of “artificial memory” that freed users from committing large amounts of detailed information to mind.2
It is the volvelle’s artificial memory within the context of manuscripts that makes it all the more different. As an artist, my hope is to remind the viewer of the often forgotten glorious memories of the exchanges of knowledge between the European, Arab and Persiante worlds. In making my volvelles’ imageries, I stack multiple layers of scientific images and textual content. In some, I mix and match Persian, Arab and European medieval and early modern scientific images and information, and by doing this, I aim to construct historical knowledge of various cultural points of view into one form. For example, in one of my volvelles I layered Galileo’s manuscript page on the observations of the moon with the eleventh-century Persian astronomer Biruni’s observation of the moon’s diagram.
What do you want viewers to take away after seeing Punctum Caecum? How do you expect viewers to relate to medieval and early modern depictions of knowledge in a contemporary context?
PK: All the pieces in Punctum Caecum collectively highlight a long-term flow of scientific knowledge and exchange of ideas across cultures. This series aims to initiate a dialogue with the viewer, communicating how knowledge transcends social, political, and cultural boundaries. By highlighting the medieval and early modern manuscripts’ visuals and other contents, I also aim to draw attention to these rich forms and to invite the viewer to observe science and its history through the process of image-making.
What is your next project, or in which direction is your work headed?
PK: I will continue to expand the Punctum Caecum series. Among the projects that I would like to pursue is exploring medieval and early modern manuscripts of botany from the European, Arab and Persiante worlds. A second project involves making ideograms that represent all scientists who made a significant contribution.
What is your advice to artists who are just starting out?
PK: Commit to your art and always stay true to yourself and to your work.
 Lynn Gamwell “Why the history of maths is also the history of art” The Guardian, December 02, 2015. Available at http://www.theguardian.com/science/alexs-adventures-in-numberland/2015/dec/02/why-the-history-of-maths-is-also-the-history-of-art (accessed December 10, 2015).
2Rheagan Martin, “Decoding the Medieval Volvelle,” Iris: The Online Magazine of the Getty, July 23, 2015. Available at http://blogs.getty.edu/iris/decoding-the-medieval-volvelle/ (accessed August 26, 2015).
Mecury News, Cupertino, CA, 2015, Endangered exhibition, by Kristi Myllenbeck
A new exhibit at De Anza College’s Euphrat Museum of Art speaks many different languages.The new exhibit, titled “Endangered,” focuses on the issue of disappearing languages, as well as the language of protest and participation.“Endangered is an excellent exhibition representing variety of subjects and inviting the viewers to rethink events, and raise questions,” said featured artist Pantea Karimi.Karimi’s piece, titled “Absent Rhyme,” focuses on the language Tati, which is a northwestern Iranian dialect that uses Persian script, and is considered “severely endangered” by UNESCO’s “Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger,” Karimi said.The piece displays a poem written in Tati on a blackboard portion of the wall. The poem is displayed above eye level and has the appearance that it is disappearing into the wind.In addition to the chalkboard display, there is also a recording of the poem and a video that runs over the blackboard, a project on which Karimi collaborated with videographer Phil Spitler.“The video offers a digital-visual demonstration of the poem on the wall. During lapse of 2 minutes and 12 seconds, the verses gradually move toward the center and disappear from the notebook page, metaphorically referencing the disappearance of the Tati language,” she said. “However, after the video disappears, the handwritten poem on the blackboard wall stays still. I use it as a metaphor for how we start learning a language. This is also a reference to my childhood experience of learning and writing alphabets using blackboard and chalk in school.”Karimi said she hopes her artwork can educate museum patrons on not only the language but also the culture.
“I would like to draw attention to greater culture of Iran. Despite the difficult political situation in the past few years, Iran continues its profound contribution to region’s culture, art and literature,” she said. “This piece also intends to draw attention to one of the vanishing languages from the country where I was born. I wish that my viewers enjoy the piece while they start thinking about issues that exist around the selected subject. In this case, my artwork acts as conduit to raise awareness.”
The Science of Imagination, Triton Museum of Art
Santa Clara, CA, 2015, 50 and Looking Forward exhibition, Curators’ note
“Pantea karimi has become one of our favorite printmakers to watch. Her skillful blend of media and techniques keeps us anticipating each new body of work. In a region celebrated for its printmaking art community, Pantea definitely has our attention. We can’t wait to see what she comes up with next.”
Mediated Senses, Peninsula Museum of Art
Burlingame, CA, 2014, by Irene Carvajal, Curator of the Peninsula Museum of Art
“Pantea Karimi’s multimedia images combine watercolor, drawing, and screen printing. Each of these processes leaves different and distinct marks on the substrate. The effect is rich multilayered experience that goes deeper than the paper surface, an illusion of space and time. Printmaking’s inherent generative quality is utilized to develop an alphabet or vocabulary that shows up repeatedly in her work. Using placement, proximity, size and color, these images interact with one another and produce a narrative that becomes familiar to the viewer. “
The Iranian Don Quixotism, Tandees Contemporary Art Magazine
Tehran, Iran, 2013, by Mahsa Farhadi Kia
“Don Quixote is the title of a group exhibition organized by Behnam Kamrani at Aan Gallery. Behnam Kamrani, Babak Emanuel, Krista Nassi, Adel Younesi, Negar Farjiani, Peyman Pojhan, and Pantea Karimi showcased their works in this exhibition. In Pantea Karimi’s small-sized works which were created by a combination of silk print, watercolor and pencil on cardboard Don Quixote comes to Iran and his steed is one of the horses in Iranian paintings and in an equivocal dialogue he touches on some events in the Iranian history. Karimi’s post-modern view in this series, namely the humorous meeting of the past and present, has served the purpose for the main theme of this exhibition.”
This exhibition had many features which made it stand out: Firstly, participation of three Iranian-origin artists who are residing abroad made the atmosphere of the works different from what we usually see in galleries. Focusing on technique, artists had created more refined and mature works, an achievement which undoubtedly is the result of the Western academic and professional world, which trains artists through accuracy and efficiency. The second strong point of this collection is the creation of works ordered by the organizer, not based on the works which are already created by the artist. This trend is the basis for professional curating activities and is often ignored in our country and leads to incorrect, inaccurate, and irrelevant choices or choices which are loosely tied to the theme of the exhibition. The number of artists who participated in this exhibition was low and each artist presented at least two and at most eight works. This caused cohesion and prevented visual dispersion of the works, even though the unprofessional handling of the gallery on the opening day and not preparing artist’s name tags on the works is something we cannot ignore.”
Grit and (Faded) Glory: New Photography Exhibit at NBAM, South Coast Today
New Bedford, MA, 2013, by Natalie Sherman
“Visitors will recognize the world of the exhibit that opens today at the New Bedford Art Museum. Fall River, by new UMass Dartmouth gallery director Viera Levitt, shows I-195 in stark black and white as it lifts over the Braga Bridge, the two Brayton Point cooling towers looming in the distance; Transition by Pantea Karimi, a San Jose artist offers a panoramic vision of the Wamsutta mill and the Wamsutta Club moving through time. The two images are part of the 24-photograph show, Exploring Urban Identities in De-industrialized Cities, which runs through Feb. 9 and celebrates the found beauty of urban decay in cities including New Bedford, Fall River, Lowell and Waltham.”
X LIBRIS, 2012, Root Division, San Francisco, CA
Political Mad-Libs, Sociecity
San Jose, CA, 2011, by Patrick Lydon
Sociecity talks with artist Pantea Karimi about her obsession with newspapers and how this fits into her latest piece titled “Fill in the Blanks.” The piece, part of a group show at Kriewall-Haehl Gallery, asks gallery visitors to give their input on social and political issues by filing in the Mad-Libs style pieces, which were put together by Karimi using a year’s worth of newspapers.
Selected image, front cover
Modernity, Sexuality, and Ideology in Iran: The Life and Legacy of Popular Female Artists
Author: Kamran Talattof, 2011, Syracuse University Press
Red Wheelbarrow Literary Magazine
Cupertino, CA, 2013, De Anza College
San Jose Mercury News
San Jose, CA, 2011, by Kathryn Funk, Independent Curator
“At a glance, the pieces feature intricate shapes, florals and patterns in a rainbow of pastel shades. But a closer look reveals more provocative images, such as the likeness of the Ayatollahs. This is an excellent example of finely done, quality images that are loaded politically and socially.”
Turning Words into Art Earns Local Artist Top Honors,
Cupertino, CA, 2010, by Matt Wilson
“Visual, spoken and written symbols are a major source of inspiration for Pantea Karimi, who was recently named the 2010 Distinguished Artist of the Year by the Cupertino Fine Arts Commission. In a world dominated by so many symbols both visual and verbal, much of her artistic inspiration is drawn from the transmission of language. Mass media, published media and popular culture are consistent themes while global symbols often star as the main attraction in her art.”
Mediated Senses-Pantea Karimi; The Artist in a Cyber-World, Mohr Gallery at Finn Center, ARTSHIFT San José
San Jose, CA, 2010, by David Santen
“In this series of mixed-media prints called Mediated Senses, Ms. Karimi expresses her wonderment and excitement with high technology but also portrays some of technology’s dangerous illusions and traps. In creations that are subtle, balanced, highly original, and quite lovely, she portrays themes that range from circumspection and fascination to a concern for the negative effects of technology on contemporary humanity. Ms. Karimi uses various shades of rose, blues, charcoals, and earth tones, all of which seem to be entirely her own invention, as opposed to invoking the commercial. The impact is subtly powerful and succeeds through spareness rather than domineering and too-obvious symbolism. With these features, her works are very engaging in that they invite and reward contemplation, and at the same time they are visually delightful even when the theme is gloomy.”
Traces of Being: Iran in the Passage of Memories, Los Angeles Times
Los Angeles, CA, 2009, by Christopher Knight
“Layered imagery is the most common strategy the artists employ to evoke the phantoms of memory that dart through current lived experience. In ethereal watercolors and drawings, Pantea Karimi merges hand-written Persian calligraphy, an ancient form, with iconic media imagery, including oil company logos and satellite-communication towers.”
Iran on My Mind, Exhibition Catalog, MoronoKiang Gallery
Traces of Being: Iran in the Passage of Memories exhibition
Los Angeles, CA, 2009, by Sonia Mak, Independent Curator and Art Historian
“The signature characteristics of Pantea Karimi’s aesthetic are technical precision, meticulous composition, strategically employed colors, and intricate-often impossibly delicate-details. Her passion for the printed word and image has undoubtedly been the preeminent influence in her art making practice. Her frequent use of female imagery is greatly informed by her longstanding curiosity about the assimilation of Western ideals of beauty in Iran and around the world. Drawing on both of these, Karimi’s main enterprise has been to peel back layers of the “truth” to uncover the machinery that relentlessly proffers fabricated information that we come to accept as common knowledge.
In her serigraph print, Outer Beauty, Karimi draws on memories from her youth of how Iranian police would enforce the law that required woman to completely cover their heads, how they would harass young girls for leaving any part of their hair exposed, and even that wearing pink would warrant arrest. In defiance against such restrictive dress code enforcement, Iranian women and girls began to express themselves by decorating their hair underneath as well as the exterior of their scarves and styling their eyebrows. Elegantly sculpted eyebrows, a pink Iranian rose, a golden comb, a red barrette, and a purple butterfly hair clip seem to float like styling options upon a faceless woman who is perfectly posed for a fashion magazine shoot. These innocent decorations, positioned beneath a noose-like string of prayer beads, are the beautiful instruments of a kind of feminine rebellion-under-the-radar. Upon a brilliant green ground, and with words that look like Farsi scribble dancing to her left like a stream of thought emerging from the psyche of this unidentified Iranian every-woman, the artist entreats the viewer to consider how women exercise agency as they navigate beauty and power as part of their daily lives.
Order and chaos clash in Karimi’s serigraph print, Voices. Two swaths of illegible text, one in bright yellow and a second in orange, and beautiful rosettes of crumpled newspaper rain down on the green streets of Iran. Karimi multiplies and juxtaposes this image taken from an actual photo of a post-election protest to underscore the scope and frequency of just such a scene throughout the country. Disguised in an easy to discern typography in ordered columns like newsprint, layers of illegible text sabotage the people’s need for the truth.”
The Artist as Nexus, Exhibition Catalog, San Jose State University
San Jose, 2009, by Sally Sumida, Independent Art Historian
“Pantea Karimi’s art addresses the compression of geographic space and historical time in an era of globalization. Her watercolors and prints present eloquent pictorial narratives informed by the rhythmic flow of Persian calligraphy, color harmonies from 18th – 19th century Flower and Bird paintings, her life experience as an Iranian artist on a diasporic journey across three continents, and the presence of surveillance in the geopolitical reality of the 21st century. Beautifully rendered images of classical Greek structures, books and angels float in timeless and ambiguous settings populated by symbols of nuclear proliferation and peace, MacDonald’s golden arches, and the fingerprints and other traces of the artist. Scattered grids of illegible text cause chaos and disruption within these scenes accentuating the unstable and transitory state of our contemporary world.”
Looking At Printmaking: Exploring a Personal, Political and Psychological History through Printmaking, ARTSHIFT San José
San Jose, CA , 2007, by Erin Goodwin-Guerrero
“An artist with boundless energy, Pantea Karimi acknowledges that the journey from one place to the other has been a life-altering experience. For all the contrasts in Karimi’s personal history and life situations, her art is a harmonic play of shapes, seductive colors and photographic images that she often manipulates digitally until they became semi-abstracted. The images are then translated into photo stencils on the silkscreen that allows her to play with size, different color relationships and compositions. Karimi’s colors are thoughtful and carefully mixed. Her own image may appear in the prints, but the viewer will not necessarily recognize her. Frequently, a prominent female figure in her prints tells us that this is a female narrative. The impression is sometimes playful, sometimes nostalgic, and always hints at her own search for her real and metaphorical place in history.”